Players starting slayer should seek the highest leveled Slayer Master accessible to them. Higher leveled masters assign monsters with increased difficulty, which generally give more experience compared to their lower counterparts. It is recommended that players complete the quest Smoking Kills as soon as possible to receive full slayer reward points when completing tasks.
Access to Slayer MastersEdit
Requirements or quests for accessing different Slayer masters and areas include:
|Master||Levels Required||Located||Quest Required|
|Turael (Spria) ||1 Combat||Taverly||None|
|Mazchna / Achtryn ||20 Combat||Canifis||None|
|Vannaka||40 Combat||Edgeville Dungeon||None|
|Chaeldar||75 Combat||Zanaris||Lost City|
|Sumona||90 Combat||Polliniveach||Smoking Kills|
|Duradel (Lapalok)||100 Combat||Shilo Village||Shilo Village|
|Kuradal||110 Combat||Ancient Cavern||Barbarian Training|
- ^ a b Turael is replaced by Spria, and Duradel is replaced by Lapalok with the completion of While Guthix Sleeps.
- ^ During While Guthix Sleeps, Mazchna is temporarily replaced by Achtryn.
Access to Slayer MonstersEdit
These quests give access to new Slayer monsters. These slayer monsters will only be assigned after the completion of the required quest. Note that Waterfiends can be assigned even if you haven't spoken to Otto.
- Horror from the Deep - Dagannoths (Dagannoths may also be killed in the Chaos Tunnels or in the Waterbirth Island Dungeon.)
- Legacy of Seergaze - Zombie hands, Skeletal hands and Mutated bloodvelds.
- Lunar Diplomacy - Suqahs
- Priest in Peril - Morytania's monsters and the Slayer Tower.
- Barbarian Training - Mithril dragons and single combat Waterfiends.
- Cabin Fever - Jungle horrors and cave horrors.
- The Path of Glouphrie - Warped tortoises and warped terrorbirds.
- Ernest the Chicken - Killerwatts
- Mourning's End II - Dark beasts (Dark beasts may also be killed in Kuradal's dungeon)
- Rum Deal - Fever Spiders
Getting to Slayer Monsters QuicklyEdit
The following transportation methods help slayers get to their tasks faster.
- Fairy Ring Teleport System - grants quick access to many high-level Slayer tasks. You can use the Fairy Rings after starting Fairytale 2 with a Lunar/Dramen staff (you won't need the staff if you have completed Fairytale part 3 ).
- Lunar Magic - used for NPC Contact, allowing you to talk to any Slayer master without travelling to them. Also used for Spellbook Swap to access non-tablet teleports like Trollheim Teleport and Ghorrock Teleport in the Ancient Magicks book. You must complete Lunar Diplomacy to use Lunar Magic. You must complete Desert Treasure for Ancient Magicks.
- Ring of slaying - can be used to teleport to several slayer locations (obtained from a slayer master for points).
- Ferocious Ring - can be used to teleport to Kuradal's Dungeon (obtained by killing monsters in Kuradal's dungeon).
- Player-owned Houses - the POH teleport can be strategically placed where there are no other handy means of teleportation. Completing Love Story can come in handy, too, as it enables you to teleport to any House Portal you like.
- Karamja gloves 3 - Reward for Karamja Tasks 3. (It allows you to teleport to Shilo Village for quickly getting a new task from Duradel)
- Juju teleport spiritbag or the Witchdoctor mask - can be used to teleport to the Herblore Habitat directly east of Shilo Village.
Slayer reward pointsEdit
The competition of Smoking Kills allows players to receive full slayer reward points when completing slayer tasks and challenges. Player who have not completed Smoking Kills will only receive half the amount of points when completing tasks. Reward points can be used to cancel, skip, and block tasks among other purchasable rewards. One of the most sought-after reward is the ability to craft slayer helmets which can be upgraded to a full slayer helmet and even further.
Slayer reward points are awarded for every task the player completes after their fourth consecutive task. Tasks assigned by Turael (or Spira) do not award slayer reward point nor do they count towards the slayer task count. Changing a task with Turael or Spria will reset the task count to zero, and therefore make the player need to do another four tasks to start receiving points again.
Every 10th and 50th task, players should use the Slayer Master having the highest requirements they meet, due to the large increase in Slayer points given. The points gained every 10th and 50th task are 5 and 15 times the Slayer Master's regular points, respectively.
|Slayer Master||Points per task||Points per 10th task||Points per 50th task|
|Turael or Spria||0||0||0|
|Mazchna or Achtryn||2||5||15|
|Duradel or Lapalok||15||75||225|
When training Slayer, it is important to have a sufficient variety of weapons to cover any task that you will be doing. The ideal weapon for the task will correspond to the target's exact weakness (ie. crush, thrown, or water spells). A player's hit chance is dependant of your accuracy, the equipment you are wearing compared to the defence level of your opponent and the weakness. When choosing the ideal weapon, one should consider the weakness type as well as the level.
In areas crowded with monsters, two-handed weapons may be preferred because of area-of-effect abilities. Nevertheless, all types of weapons are covered below.
- Drygore rapier (lvl 90)
- Chaotic rapier (lvl 80)
- Korasi's sword (lvl 78, has the stats of a lvl 75 weapon) - has 1.0% melee crit.
- Dragon dagger/Toktz-xil-ek/Toktz-xil-ak (lvl 60)
- Leaf-bladed sword (lvl 50)
- Chaotic spear (lvl 80)
- Zamorakian spear (lvl 75)
- Guthan's warspear (lvl 70)
- Dragon spear (lvl 60)
- Leaf-bladed spear (lvl 50)
- Off-hand drygore rapier (lvl 90)
- Off-hand chaotic rapier (lvl 80)
- Jessika's sword (lvl 75)
- Off-hand dragon dagger (lvl 60)
- Drygore longsword (lvl 90)
- Chaotic claw (lvl 80 + 0.9% Melee crit)
- Chaotic longsword (lvl 80)
- Abyssal vine whip (lvl 75)
- Abyssal whip (lvl 70)
- Dragon claw (level 60 + 0.8% Melee crit)
- Dragon longsword/battleaxe/scimitar (lvl 60)
- Saradomin godsword (lvl 75 + heals the user)
- Any other godsword (lvl 75)
- Dharok's greataxe (lvl 70)
- Dragon 2h sword/Dragon halberd (lvl 60)
- Off-hand drygore longsword (lvl 90)
- Off-hand chaotic claw (lvl 80 + 0.9% Melee crit)
- Enhanced excalibur (lvl 72)
- Off-hand dragon claw (lvl 60 + 0.7% Melee crit)
- Off-hand dragon longsword/battleaxe/scimitar (lvl 60)
- Chaotic maul (lvl 80)
- Saradomin sword (lvl 75)
- Verac's flail/Torag's hammer (lvl 70)
- Tzhaar-ket-om (lvl 60)
- Granite maul (lvl 55)
While all bows and crossbows can use ammunition of any tier, the damage will cap at the weapon's level.
Bows and arrowsEdit
- Zaryte bow (lvl 80) - provides its own level 80 ammunition
- Crystal bow (lvl 70) - provides its own level 70 ammunition
- Magic shortbow (lvl 50) - use with level 50 rune arrows
- Dark bow (lvl 70) - use with dark arrows
- Magic shieldbow (sighted) (lvl 55) - use with level 60 dragon arrows
Crossbows and boltsEdit
- Ascension crossbow (lvl 90) - use with level 90 Ascension bolts
- Chaotic crossbow (lvl 80) - use with level 80 Royal bolts
- Armadyl crossbow (lvl 70) - use with level 70 Dragon bolts (e)
- Karil's pistol crossbow (lvl 70) - only fires level 70 Bolt racks
- Dragon crossbow (lvl 60) - use with level 60 Ruby bolts (e)
- Royal crossbow (lvl 80) - use with level 80 Royal bolts
- Hand cannon (lvl 75) - only fires level 75 Hand cannon shot
- Karil's crossbow (lvl 70) - only fires level 70 Bolt racks
- Dragon 2h crossbow (lvl 60) - use with Ruby bolts (e)
- Off-hand ascension crossbow (lvl 90) - use with level 90 ascension bolts
- Off-hand chaotic crossbow (lvl 80) - use with level 80 royal bolts
- Karil's off-hand pistol crossbow (lvl 70) - only fires level 70 bolt racks
- Off-hand dragon crossbow (lvl 60) - use with ruby bolts (e)
- Death lotus dart (lvl 85)
- Morrigan's throwing axe (lvl 78)
- Sagaie (lvl 72)
- Blisterwood stake (lvl 70) - require partial completion of Branches of Darkmeyer
- Dragon dart (lvl 60)
- Dragon throwing axe (lvl 60)
There are no two-handed thrown weapons.
- Off-hand death lotus dart (lvl 85)
- Off-hand blisterwood stake (lvl 70) - require partial completion of Branches of Darkmeyer
- Off-hand dragon dart (lvl 60)
- Off-hand dragon throwing axe (lvl 60)
If accuracy is not an issue, you may use the strongest spell you can.
- Seismic wand (lvl 90)
- Virtus wand (lvl 80)
- Abyssal wand (lvl 75)
- Wand of treachery (lvl 70)
- Ahrim's wand (lvl 70)
- Master wand (lvl 60) - has a 2% crit bonus
- Grifolic wand (lvl 60)
- Chaotic staff (lvl 80)
- Armadyl battlestaff (lvl 77) - provides unlimited air runes
- Polypore staff (lvl 75)
- Staff of light (lvl 75)
- Blisterwood staff (lvl 70) - free to obtain after The Branches of Darkmeyer
- Ahrim's staff (lvl 70)
- Toktz-Mej-Tal (lvl 60)
- Enhanced ancient staff (lvl 50) - equivalent to Staff of light, enhanced version requires completion of the desert elite tasks.
- Seismic singularity (lvl 90)
- Virtus book (lvl 80)
- Abyssal orb (lvl 75)
- Ahrim's book of magic (lvl 70)
- Grifolic orb (lvl 60)
- Mages' book (lvl 60)
It is rather easy to decide what armour to take on Slayer because you only have to compare its tier and its prayer bonus. This is made even easier when there is usually an available compromise at higher levels.
Power armour is highly recommended when slaying.
- Black mask, Slayer helmet, or Full slayer helmet - while they have very low defensive stats, they give a 12.5% increase to melee accuracy and damage when slaying assigned monsters (a full slayer helmet also does the same for ranged and magic). A Slayer helmet incorporates all Slayer headgear effects. The slayer helmet may be enchanted so that it may be charged with special attack scrolls for combat familiars to save special attack energy for the familiars.
- Slayer masks/helms for getting specific tasks.
- Verac's armour - has the decent defence of level 70 equipment and a small prayer bonus as an extra benefit.
- Proselyte armour - while it has very low defensive stats, its prayer bonus is substantial and may be considered worth it on easier tasks by some players.
- Salve amulet (e) - provides a 20% boost to Attack and Strength. Neither stacks with the Black mask/Slayer helmet effect - only the larger boost takes effect.
- Saradomin's whisper - provides 4.4% crit to melee and 2 prayer bonus.
- Tokhaar-Kal - The Tokhaar-Kal is the best melee cape for slayer. It provides some defence along with 2.4% melee crit and 2 prayer bonus.
- Fire cape - a toned down version of the Tokhaar-Kal, this cape has lower stats, although its 2.2% melee crit is very decent.
- Blessed spirit shield - an affordable level 70 shield
- Dragon defender - a tier 60 offhand weapon that provides a decent boost to armour and life points.
- Dragonfire shield - for those without access to Super antifires, this is a superior alternative to the Anti dragon shield. It also has good defensive bonuses.
- Goliath gloves - level 85 gloves from Dominion Tower that deflect some damage to ranged-based monsters.
- Dragon slayer gloves - gives a 10% increase to attack when slaying the assigned dragon task. This effect stacks with the Black mask or Slayer helmet's effect. Despite its benefits, the time required to obtain this is not worth the bonus effect.
- Dragon boots, Bandos boots, and Steadfast boots - provide increasingly high defence stats along with increasing cost.
- Warrior ring or Warrior ring (i) - provide 2.7% and 3.0% melee crit respectively.
- Guthan's armour, Dharok's armour, and Torag's armour - if not planning to use their respective set effects, Verac's armour is better because it has prayer bonus.
- Bandos armour - while it has a lesser prayer bonus than Verac's armour, Bandos doesn't degrade.
- Torva armour - for those wanting very high defensive stats.
- Focus sight or Full slayer helmet - while they have very low defensive stats, they give a 12.5% increase to Ranged accuracy and damage when slaying assigned monsters. A Slayer helmet incorporates all Slayer headgear effects. The slayer helmet may be enchanted so that it may be charged with special attack scrolls for combat familiars to save special attack energy for the familiars.
- Dragonhide armour and shields - Have increasingly better stats in order of green, blue, red, black, and royal. In order to use the green d'hide body Dragon Slayer must be completed. Note that the coifs require charging at Fist of Guthix.
- Armadyl buckler - a level 70 shield with a prayer bonus.
- Armadyl armour - Armadyl armour has a prayer bonus, unlike its Barrows tier equivalent. However, this bonus is very slight and some players prefer to use the cheaper Karil's armour.
- Karil's armour - a relatively cheap but effective substitute for Armadyl armour.
- Pernix armour - extremely expensive and degradeable. However it provides better stats then any of the other ranging armour choices above.
- Archers' ring and Archers' ring (i) - have 2.7% and 3% ranged crit respectively.
- Saradomin's murmur - provides 4.4% ranged crit and 2 prayer bonus.
- Amulet of ranging - a very good substitute for the murmur, this has 4.3% ranged crit and is cheaper.
- Snakeskin boots/Carapace boots, Armadyl boots and Glaiven boots - provide increasingly better bonuses.
- Swift gloves - level 85 gloves from Dominion Tower that deflect some damage to mage-based creatures.
- Ava's alerter, Ava's accumulator, Ava's device - provide Ranged crit and will retrieve some ammunition from autoattacks.
- Hexcrest or Full slayer helmet - while they have very low defensive stats, they give a 12.5% increase to Magic accuracy and damage when slaying assigned monsters. A Slayer helmet incorporates all Slayer headgear effects. The slayer helmet may be enchanted so that it may be charged with special attack scrolls for combat familiars to save special attack energy for the familiars.
- Akrisae's armour - level 70 armour with prayer bonus. Requires Ritual of the Mahjarrat to wear.
- Ahrim's armour - level 70 armour without a prayer bonus. Has no quest requirements.
- Robes of subjugation - level 70 non-degrading armour with a small prayer bonus.
- Arcane stream necklace - a necklace from Dungeoneering with a 4.9% magic crit.
- Saradomin's hiss - provides 4.4% magic crit and 2 prayer bonus.
- Seers' ring and Seers' ring (i) - provide 2.7% and 3.0% magic crit respectively.
- Spellcaster gloves - level 85 gloves from Dominion Tower that deflect some damage to melee-based monsters.
- Virtus armour - very expensive but has superior stats to most other armours.
- Lunar equipment - a cheap alternative to Barrows equipment but requires Lunar Diplomacy.
- Ganodermic armour - level 75 armour. However, it degrades and is not cheap to repair.
- Boots of subjugation and Ragefire boots - both provide decent defence, Ragefire boots being the better of the two.
- Crystal shield - a great little-known shield. It is level 70 and requires completion of Roving Elves to obtain.
- Any God cape - magic crit.
The following equipment can be used for Ranging, Maging, and Meleeing. It is worth noting that hybrid armour has hybrid defences; for example, wielding Barrows Gloves when ranging will not provide any more magic defence than melee defence.
- Full slayer helm - 12.5% increase to accuracy and damage for all combat styles.
- Amulet of fury - provides 4.2% crit to all styles, along with 3 prayer bonus.
- Ardougne cloak 3 - has 4 prayer bonus, 1.5% crit to all styles, and a bit of armour.
- Soul Wars Cape - for those preferring more prayer bonus to crit, this cape provides a hefty 6 prayer bonus along with a bit of armour.
- Any Skill Cape - these provide 2% crit to all styles and 180 armour. A 2 prayer bonus is available if trimmed.
- Barrows gloves - Cheap level 70 gloves that are classed for all.
- Onyx ring (i) - 124 armour and 2.7% crit to all.
- Berserker ring and Berserker ring (i) - provides 2.2% and 2.5% crit to all styles.
- Void Knight equipment - armour with low defence but an actual offensive bonus. It cannot be used with the slayer helmet. It is up to the Slayer to decide whether or not the set is beneficial to the task at hand.
Food is not strictly necessary with abilities such as Rejuvenate, Regenerate, and the ancient curse Soul Split. However, food can be good to bring as it requires no adrenaline and provides cheap healing, although costing part of your adrenaline bar when used.
Below is a chart listing the best food for your level.
|Image||Food||Healing||level for maximum healing||Cost||Notes|
(950 * 2)
|95||1,516 coins||Takes two bites, healing 950 LP each.|
|Rocktail||1860||93||2,172 coins||While a very handy food, Rocktail cost more than many others and can be easily substituted for other, slightly less efficient foods.|
|Manta ray||1820||91||2,091 coins||Very expensive. It is recommended to use other foods.|
(850 * 2)
|85||903 coins||Takes two bites, healing 850 LP each.|
|Cavefish||1600||80||1,771 coins||Boosts a random combat stat by 2.|
|Shark||2000||80||1,603 coins||A very nice food with common use.|
(650 * 2)
|65||438 coins||Two bites healing 650 each.|
|Monkfish||1600||62||490 coins||A lower-level staple.|
|Swordfish||1200||45||247 coins||A low-level but cheap food. Great for healing up before or after Slayer trips.|
See Calculators/Food healed for a detailed cost per lifepoint breakdown.
Other Useful ItemsEdit
- Dramen staff or Lunar staff. You don't have to finish the whole Fairy Tale II quest, just do it until the middle when you are allowed to use the rings. If you finish Fairytale III - Battle at Orks Rift, you can use the Fairy Rings without needing the Dramen or Lunar staff, saving you an inventory space. It can also be useful for accessing Kuradal in the ancient cavern using the fairy ring code B•J•Q.
- Enchanted Gem or Ring of Slaying to check how many kills you have left in your assignment. The Ring of Slaying also provides teleport to several locations. The Rellekka Slayer Caves teleport bring the player close to a fairy ring. The Sumona teleport will bring the player close to the slayer master and the smoke dungeon.
- Combat stat-boosting potions (such as a Super set). These are a must-have for slayer. The time saved from using these will easily compensate for the price of the potions. Extremes should be used if available, but only use Overloads if you plan to kill stronger variants of your task (e.g K'ril Tsutsaroth instead of Greater demons)
- A fast method of teleportation. A house tab is a good idea, since it takes up one inventory space, is stackable, and can take you to your house, which may contain many teleports, an altar, and a summoning obelisk.
- Karamja gloves 3 can be useful for accessing Duradel, using the Shilo Village gem mine teleport. It also gives free entry into Brimhaven Dungeon if you're planning to kill monsters there.
- Bones to Peaches is useful for monsters that drop bones, for those desperate for food.
- Energy potions and/or Super energy potions for getting around quickly.
- Summoning pouches and scrolls - Beasts of Burden to carry extra supplies or drops; Healers to reduce food consumption or eliminate the need for it altogether. Combat familiar pouches for faster experience. The highest levelled players will use a steel titan with their helmet and their inventory loaded with special attack scrolls for faster tasks even on dragon tasks, using a Bonecrusher for those tasks. A unicorn would be brought if a steel titan may not.
- Holy wrench - Boosts the amount that prayer restoring potions regenerate. It is worth bringing for tasks with empty inventory spaces left over.
- Broomstick or Pollnivneach tablet - For those without a Ring of Slaying, a Chipped House Tablet may be used, although it required the quest Love Story to be done. A broomstick teleport along with a carpet ride is also a semi-decent way to reach Sumona or the Smoke Dungeon.
- Runes for NPC Contact - Allows the player to quickly get a new task after finishing one.
- Ferocious Ring - This is the best ring to use in Kuradal's dungeon, and allows fast teleport to Kuradal.
- Tokkul-Zo - It has semi-decent stats, as it offers 1.5% critical for all combat styles and +2 armour rating. Its Fight Caves and Fight Kiln teleports puts the player right next to a bank, and next to a Fairy Ring for the Fight Cave teleport. This ring provides an extra 10% damage against Tzhaar monsters, making it the best ring for those tasks.
- Dwarf multicannon and Cannonballs - for faster killing; moderately expensive to use but usually speeds tasks and experience up considerably; faster kill rates mean time saved that could have been spent doing more slayer or making money to make up for the cost of cannonballs. Although higher levelled players might find cannoning all possible tasks to be the most efficient route, lower leveled players or those on a budget should consider cannoning only the tasks with monsters that are aggressive (dagannoths, hellhounds, mutated terrorbirds, suqahs, and kalphites).
Some players use their house as an advantage to quickly train Slayer.
Note that there are many cases where using player-owned houses are not the most efficient method, not all of the following advantages are relevant to those who have unlocked high level teleportations.
|Rimmington||Close to Mudskipper Point for mogre, ice warrior and skeletal wyvern tasks.Can be reached easily with an Explorer´s ring (3) teleport (cabbage port).||Far from a Slayer master to exchange slayer points.
Fairy ring code A•I•Q teleports directly to Mudskipper Point.
The amulet of glory teleports to Draynor, rendering the time saved minimal.
|Taverley||Somewhat close to Trollheim for troll, spiritual mage, spiritual ranger, and spiritual warrior tasks|
Close to the Heroes Guild and Taverley Dungeon for blue dragon tasks
Close to Burthorpe Slayer master for reassignment of tasks
|The games necklace and Home Teleport teleports closer to all these locations. (except blue dragons). The Taverley lodestone gives quick access to the Burthorpe Slayer master, and the Burthorpe lodestone is more faster than using Taverley POH.|
|Pollnivneach||Close to Sumona|
Close to the Smoke Dungeon
| The magic broom, Camulet and Bandit camp lodestone are somewhat slower but cheaper.
Ring of slaying can directly teleport to Sumona's house.
Close to Waterbirth Island Dungeon for high-level dagannoth kills (level 90 Dagannoth and Dagannoth Kings)
Close to Ice strykewyrms.
|Far from a Slayer Master to exchange slayer points.
Enchanted lyre teleports close to POH portal.
Fairy rings are faster to Ice strykewyrms. Games necklace is closer to the Lighthouse dagannoths. Lunar lodestone is faster to getting to Lunar Isle.
Close to the Brimhaven Dungeon
Few non-Slayer uses.
Karamja lodestone can be used to access the Brimhaven dungeon
|Yanille||Close to blue dragons and greater demons in the Ogre Encampment.||Far from a Slayer master to exchange slayer points.
Watchtower teleport is close.
Using the Lodestone is a little bit faster.
- 1,000 - Recipe for Disaster
- 1,000 - Animal Magnetism
- 2,500 - The Curse of Arrav
- 2,500 - Fur 'n' Seek
- 5,000 - Royal Trouble
- 5,000 - Wanted!
- 5,000 - Smoking Kills
- 11,000 - A Clockwork Syringe
- 20,000 - The Path of Glouphrie
- 23,000 - Back to my Roots
- 110,000 - The World Wakes
Total: 186,000 Experience
- 4 x 100,000 experience from Idria after the While Guthix Sleeps quest may be used for the Slayer skill if the player is level 65 or higher.
Total: 586,000 Experience
Note that While Guthix Sleeps is not the only quest that gives experience in any skill, so more experience than 586,000 can be obtained. For more information on quests that give experience lamps that can potentially be used on Slayer, see Quest experience rewards.
Beast of Burden familiars increase a player's inventory size which allows for longer stays on Slayer assignments by either allowing the player to bring more food and/or equipment allowing the player to pick up more looted items before having to return to the bank.
Healer familiars provide sources of health restoration. This may consist of a constant heal over time, a scroll use spell, or the capability of creating food to eat. A healer familiar will still heal a player even if that player has no Summoning points left.
A fourth class of familiar, skill enhancing familiars, may be selected for a specific task to receive a desired effect. Example of this would be using a Macaw familiar while on an aberrant spectre assignment to improve the quality of herbs dropped.
Regardless of what class of familiar is selected, some thought must be taken when selecting a familiar for a particular slayer assignment. What works for one player may not work for another. Factors for selecting a familiar are location, a player's combat level, gear and method of attack for the assignment, a player's desired effect (faster kills, longer session, better drops) and what a particular familiars a player has access to. For example, it would be better to bring a Pack Yak to a Metal Dragons task if ranging due to the fact you will not get hurt as much, due to free inventory space being a luxury. Compare this to a meleer, who gets hit all the time (save halberds, which are slow and should only be used as a special attack weapon) may want to bring a Unicorn. Another example would be using a Bunyip over a Unicorn on a Waterfiend task. Waterfiends drop tons of raw food if you ever get hurt, so it would be more cost-efficient to use a Bunyip here over a Unicorn.