Herblore Habitat is a members only area that was released on 24 November 2010. It is based in the south-east area of Karamja, within the confines of a Jade vine grown from a cutting, with the help of some magic, by the witch doctor Papa Mambo. Participating in it involves growing plants and creating habitats with Farming and Construction, which attracts Jadinkos, reptilian plant creatures whose lives are linked to the vine. Once attracted to the area, the jadinkos can then be caught with Hunter for their vines. The vines can be used to make magical Juju potions with Herblore, which have varied effects, such as attracting rarer jadinkos to the habitat, increasing hunting success, summoning special spirits or increasing experience in certain skills.
To begin using the habitat area effectively a player must have a minimum of 54 Farming, 70 Hunter, and 54 Herblore. The highest requirements for utilising all content in the habitat are 80 Farming, 81 Hunter, 75 Herblore, and 55 Agility. A Construction level of 80 is extremely helpful, but can be assisted by another player or substituted for cash payments. It is highly recommended to have at least 56 Construction to avoid spending large sums of money. Players should also have money, a hatchet and farming tools stored in a tool leprechaun or on their tool belts. There are no quest requirements.
There are no level requirements to enter the habitat. So, for example, if a clue scroll requires a player to enter the habitat, they can enter the area and complete the scroll.
To get started, players must travel to the habitat. It is advised to bring money in one's money pouch to purchase supplies. Players can teleport directly to the habitat by purchasing a juju teleport spiritbag for 2,000 coins from Bettamax, who roams the western side of Taverley. The spiritbag teleports the player to the northern part of the habitat near Papa Mambo. (Papa Mambo also sells spiritbags.)
It's also possible to get there on foot. The entrance is east of Shilo Village and east of the waterfall, on the south bank of the river. Climb over the vines to get inside. Shilo Village can be reached using Vigroys cart or Karamja gloves 3. Alternatively use a ring of duelling to teleport to the Duel Arena, run to the Al Kharid Gnome Glider, and fly to Karamja (Gandius). From here, run north west around the water then south west until you come to stepping stones. Jump across the stones, run east, and climb over the vines.
Once at the habitat, players should talk to Papa Mambo located at the habitat entrance. First-time players can ask Papa Mambo for free seeds to get started. Players can also purchase hunter and farming gear from his shop if necessary. To begin, a new player will need a few marasamaw plants, and blossom seeds.
There are areas separated into 4 camps by the vines.
- Papa Mambo's Shop. All the critical supplies you require can be purchased from Papa Mambo (except for hatchets, which are needed to clear the fruit tree patch)
- The cauldron, which is just east of Papa Mambo, is a water supply for both vials and watering cans
- Hunting area (marasamaw trapping only)
- Zombie farmer, who can look over all but the vine flower patch and second vine herb patch
- Astlayrix, who will keep track of jadinko preferences
- Farming features
- Vine flower patch (northeast patch)
- Vine bush patch (southwest patch)
- Vine herb patch (southeast patch)
- Regular fruit tree patch (northwest patch)
- Regular compost bin, located on the east side
- Tool leprechaun
- Environmental feature patch, located in the centre
South camp Edit
- Deposit box, located in the southwest corner
- Agility shortcut giving access to the east camp, located in the northeast corner
- Tunnel into the Jadinko Lair, near the Deposit Box. (Must be unlocked from the Jadinko Lair first)
- Hunting area (marasamaw trapping)
- Hunting area (tracking)
East camp Edit
This part of the camp is an island accessed using an agility shortcut which requires 55 agility. Using this shortcut yields 30 agility experience in three parts of ten for climbing the vine, crossing the vine, and climbing back down the vine. The shortcut can be failed which results in the player having to try again. Players must climb onto the vine from the South camp.
- Vine herb patch
- Hunter area (marasamaw trapping only)
Farming in Herblore Habitat is the most important skill here. Without the minimum requirement of level 54, the flowers which attract the most basic jadinko cannot be planted, thus there will be nothing to hunt, and therefore no ingredients to make potions. That said, Boosts and Assists can be used to plant said flowers. The scroll of life from dungeoneering works with all of the farming patches in Herblore Habitat.
Inside the middle camp of Herblore Habitat, there are several farming patches:
- A vine flower patch, for growing vine flowers
- A vine bush patch, for growing vine bushes
- A vine herb patch, for growing vine herbs (a second vine herb patch is located in the east camp)
- A fruit tree patch, for growing all normal fruit trees
Tending the patchesEdit
Tending the patches is done in the normal way:
- Remove weeds with a rake
- Optionally add compost, supercompost or cast Fertile Soil
- Plant seeds with a seed dibber
- Water plants (only vine flowers and fruit tree saplings need to be watered, as usual)
- Harvest plants (herbs require a spade)
- Remove plants (chop down fruit trees with a hatchet and remove the stump with a spade or remove bushes with a spade)
Like other patches, weeds will not grow back if Fairy Tale III - Orks Rift has been completed and the weed-free patch ability has been enabled.
Herblore Habitat has a tool leprechaun, who gives access to the same tool store as all other leprechauns. This leprechaun can also store 30 of each of the following:
- Juju hunter potion (3)
- Juju farming potion (3)
- Scentless potion (3)
- Saradomin's blessing (3)
- Guthix's gift (3)
- Zamorak's favour (3)
He cannot note clean herbs.
There is a Compost Bin in the habitat farming area that works the same as compost bins at allotment patches. Several items from Herblore Habitat can be used to make compost in any compost bin. Pungent vines make Supercompost when put into the compost bin. Vine herbs make regular Compost. Compost is very important to successful farming because it affects growth, disease, and harvest similar to regular farming. It is recommended to use supercompost whenever possible.
Vine flower patchEdit
The vine flower patch is the most basic patch for attracting jadinkos. Only vine flowers can be planted in this patch. Flower seeds are easy to obtain because they are the only seed that can be purchased. Players can buy all three colours from Papa Mambo for 50gp each. The vine flower patch can not be protected by the zombie farmer.
|Red blossom seeds||Red vine blossom||Bought from Papa Mambo,|
|Blue blossom seeds||Blue vine blossom||Bought from Papa Mambo,|
|Green blossom seeds||Green vine blossom||Bought from Papa Mambo,|
Vine herb patchesEdit
There are two vine herb patches at the habitat: one is in the middle camp, while the other can be found in the east camp. It is often worthwhile to use the Witchdoctor mask teleport in order to get back to the middle camp from the second patch. Only vine herbs may be grown here. The seeds can be obtained from hunting the jadinkos. Only the vine herb patch in the middle camp can be protected by paying the zombie farmer. Since vine herb seeds are so rare it is worthwhile to pay to have them watched. Unless you find you are getting more seeds than you can grow, use the patch in the east camp only if it is absolutely necessary or if you intend to remain close by to keep an eye on them.
|Erzille seeds||Grimy erzille||Jadinko drop||58||87||87||3 green vine blossom|
|Argway seeds||Grimy argway||Jadinko drop||65||110||125||4 red vine blossom|
|Ugune seeds||Grimy ugune||Jadinko drop||70||135||152||3 blue vine blossom|
|Shengo seeds||Grimy shengo||Jadinko drop||76||140.5||160||5 lergberries|
|Samaden seeds||Grimy samaden||Jadinko drop||80||170||190||5 kalferberries|
Vine bush patchEdit
Vine bushes are required to attract some jadinkos. The berries harvested from vine bushes can be used as payment to the Zombie farmer to protect the more valuable vine herbs samaden (5 kalferberries) and shengo (5 lergberries).
|Lergberry seeds||Lergberries||Jadinko drop||61||145.5||31.5||236.3||3 Red vine blossom|
|Kalferberry seeds||Kalferberries||Jadinko drop||77||220.2||52.5||375.3||3 Lergberries|
Fruit tree patchEdit
The Fruit tree patch can grow any type of fruit tree, but only Apple, Banana, and Orange trees will attract jadinkos. Players may only receive apple, banana and orange seeds from the jadinkos. Players who do not play Herblore Habitat can still use this patch for regular farming.
|Apple tree seeds||Apple||Jadinko drop,|
|Banana tree seeds||Banana||Jadinko drop,|
|33||28||10.5||1,750.5||4 baskets of apples|
|Orange tree seeds||Orange||Jadinko drop,|
|39||35.5||13.5||2,470.2||3 baskets of strawberries|
|Curry tree seeds||Curry leaf||Birds' nest||42||40||15||2,906.9||5 baskets of bananas|
|Pineapple seeds||Pineapple||Birds' nest||51||57||21.5||4,605.7||10 watermelons|
|Papaya tree seeds||Papaya||Birds' nest,|
|Palm tree seeds||Coconut||Birds' nest||68||110.5||41.5||10,150.1||15 papayas|
The Zombie farmer can protect three patches in return for payment. He can protect the Vine herb patch, the Vine bush patch, and the Fruit tree patch.
|Type of Plant||Payment Charge|
|Erzille seeds||3 x green vine blossom|
|Argway seeds||4 x red vine blossom|
|Ugune seeds||3 x blue vine blossom|
|Shengo seeds||5 x lergberries|
|Samaden seeds||5 x kalferberries|
|Lergberry bushes||3 x red vine blossom|
|Kalferberry bushes||3 x lergberries|
|Apple tree||9 x Raw sweetcorns|
|Banana tree||4 x Basket of apples|
|Orange tree||3 x Basket of strawberries|
|Curry tree||5 x Basket of bananas|
|Pineapple tree||10 x Watermelons|
|Papaya tree||10 x Pineapples|
|Palm tree||15 x Papayas|
Jadinkos are creatures that can be hunted in the Herblore Habitat. Ten types of jadinkos are caught using box trapping with a Marasamaw plant and an optional withered vine or pungent vine as the bait. The other three jadinko types are tracked and caught with the noose wand on the tool belt. Each jadinko requires certain environmental conditions in order to be attracted to the hunter areas. Three of the jadinkos caught with a marasamaw plant are named after the three main gods and their preferences change every week and are different for every player. The other ten jadinkos have the same environmental preferences each week. Astlayrix, who is found in the middle camp, can give the player more information about catching jadinkos and keeps track of jadinko preferences for the player.
Each type of jadinko requires a different combination of plants in the habitat farming patches. The following table outlines the combinations that each jadinko is attracted to. If the Jadinko has a certain preference, the flower, habitat, potion (Juju hunter potion), bush, or tree type it will be listed, otherwise any type of seed can be used. Plants don't need to be fully grown to take effect. However, their effect will stop working immediately if they get diseased/die.
|Jadinko||Hunter Level||XP||Method||Juju hunter potion?||Flower||Habitat||Bush||Tree||Vine||Seeds|
|Common||70||350||Marasamaw trap (North)||No||Any||Any||Any||Any||Withered vine||All|
|Shadow||71||475||Tracking||No||Red||Abandoned house||None||None||Shadow vine||All|
|Igneous||74||465||Marasamaw trap (South)||No||Blue||Thermal vent||Lergberry||Orange||Marble vine||Bush|
|Cannibal||75||475||Marasamaw trap (South)||Yes||Green||Tall grass||Kalferberry||None||Plant teeth||Bush|
|Aquatic||76||475||Marasamaw trap (South)||Yes||Red||Pond||Kalferberry||Apple||Aquatic vine||Flower|
|Amphibious||77||485||Marasamaw trap (North)||No||Blue||Pond||Lergberry||None||Oily vine||Tree|
|Carrion||78||505||Marasamaw trap (South)||No||Green||Boneyard||Kalferberry||None||Pungent vine||Herb|
|Camouflaged||79||600||Tracking||Yes||Any||Standing stones||Lergberry||None||Striped vine||All|
|Draconic||80||525||Marasamaw trap (North)||Yes||Red||Dark pit||Lergberry||None||Draconic vine||Herb|
Efficient catching methodEdit
You will need the following for the "one seed efficient" method:
- 1 Green/Red/Blue blossom seeds
- 1 Kalferberry/Lergberry seeds
- 1 Banana/Apple/Orange saplings
- (3 strawberry baskets (noted), if you want to make sure the orange tree matures)
- 1 Juju hunter potion (2 doses will suffice)
- Up to 5 Marasamaw plants (depending on your hunting level)
- Spade (optional. Use on the patches to quickly plant new seeds. Tool belt will not work)
A "one seed efficient" method to unlock and catch all 10 Jadinkos would be to follow these steps:
- Common jadinko - Plant a green flower (Marasamaw, North)
- Carrion jadinko - Plant a kalferberry bush and build a boneyard (Marasamaw, South)
- Diseased jadinko - Plant a banana tree (Noose wand, South)
- Cannibal jadinko - Build tall grass and use a dose of juju hunter potion on the flower patch (Marasamaw, South)
- Shadow jadinko - Plant red flower and build abandoned house (Noose wand, South)
- Aquatic jadinko - Build a pond, plant an apple tree, and use another dose of juju hunter potion on the flower patch if the effect of the previous potion has worn off (Marasamaw, South)
- Camouflaged jadinko - Plant a lergberry bush, build standing stones, and use another dose of juju hunter potion on the flower patch if the effect of the previous potion has worn off (Noose wand, South)
- Draconic jadinko - Build a dark pit and use another dose of juju hunter potion on flower patch if the effect of the previous potion has worn off. You can keep catching them until the hunter potion wears off. (Marasamaw, North)
- Amphibious jadinko - Plant a blue flower and build a pond (Marasamaw, North)
- Igneous jadinko - Build a thermal vent and plant an orange tree (pay 3 strawberry baskets) (Marasamaw, South)
While the juju hunter potion is not required for all ten, if used for all, then your chances of getting god jadinkos hints will increase, as they can only be attracted with treated flowers. Also by talking to Astlayrix near the vine flower patch and him giving you a tour you unlock common and Igneous.
As the juju hunter potion lasts 10 minutes (and the effects do not vanish if you dig up the flowers to replace them with a different colour) it is possible to catch all the jadinkos with just the one dose, presuming you only catch one or two of each type. This entire cycle uses one of each colour flower, one of each bush, and one of each tree - the only repeated item is to rebuild a pond.
Attracting god jadinkosEdit
There are also 3 god jadinkos. Their preferences change weekly and are different for each player. It may be required for you to have an empty vine bush patch, empty tree patch or empty feature patch to successfully draw up the god jadinkos.
If you have 2 or 3 out of the 4 requirements for a particular god jadinko and have a juju hunter potion in effect, you may get a 'hint' message in your chat box, alerting the player that x number of the jadinko's preferences have been met. In addition, a matching god jadinko will make a short appearance next to the player inside of the middle camp when a hint is received.
Just like regular jadinkos, god jadinko combinations do not include the herb patch.
The flowers, habitat, and bushes are completely random per Jadinko each week, however the tree patch works differently. Each player will be randomly assigned a specific tree, with a very low chance per god jadinko that this will change to something different - the end result being that usually the tree will be the same for all god jadinkos.
Keep in mind these facts:
- Whatever is growing in the flower, bush, and tree patches do not need to be fully grown in order to attract the god jadinkos.
- The potion effect does not wear off if you pick the flower or remove it with a spade.
- If you have 3 or 4 of the requirements and remove one of them, you might not be warned that you now have only 2 or 3, so keep good track of the warning messages.
- As mentioned before, the three god jadinkos usually but not always are attracted by the same fruit tree (or empty fruit tree patch) in a given week.
- However, the god jadinkos may or may not be attracted by the same things in the bush patch and the feature patch. It's perfectly possible for two of them to be attracted by a lergberry bush while the third is attracted by an empty bush patch, for example.
- Flowers are the only patch where each god jadinko is always attracted to a separate type, and never to an empty patch.
If you put those facts together, it means you can quickly find out the god jadinko recommendations, provided you're willing to use several seeds by planting and quickly removing them.
God jadinko strategyEdit
Keeping a bush planted and trying different combinations with the Habitat, Vine patch, and Fruit tree patch will reduce time enormously, and will save you from hunting for extra Lergberry or Kalferberry seeds.
Cycling through habitats is the easiest way to get hints. As each flower has a god jadinko, the addition of the correct habitat will secure two out of four requirements, almost guaranteeing a hint. If all your god jadinko requirements are two and three off, you have the wrong tree. With the right tree, and a bush planted, at least one of the god jadinkos will be attracted by this cycling, unless, by unlucky circumstances, one of them requires no bush or no tree and the other two require the opposite bush that is planted.
Another strategy is to locate the required fruit tree before the bush, because every week the fruit tree is same for all three god jadinkos. This saves the extra work of changing the fruit tree multiple times, and only changing the habitat, flower patch, and berry patch. The flower patch is always different for each god jadinko.
As you work to catch all 10 regular jadinkos, take notes of when you receive hints about god jadinkos. You will likely find most of the clues for one or more.
The flowers are always different for each god jadinko, and always need to treated with juju hunter potion in order for them to be attracted.
The bushes and trees are usually (if not always) the same for the jadinkos.
Sometimes you might not need a bush or a tree. You still need a flower and Juju Hunter potion though.
Growing apple and banana trees can be cleared prematurely by right clicking the patch; an orange tree however, requires that you "use" a spade from your inventory on the patch (Papa Mamabo sells spades for 3gp).
The following jadinkos can be caught by box trapping with a marasamaw plant.
|Jadinko||Picture||Hunter level||Exp||Primary drop||Vine Usage||Possible 2nd drop|
|Common||70||350||Withered vine||Trap bait||Any type of seed|
|Igneous||74||465||Marble vine||Juju farming potion||Vine bush seeds|
|Cannibal||75||475||Plant teeth||Juju cooking potion||Vine bush seeds|
|Aquatic||76||475||Aquatic vine||Juju fishing potion||Vine flower seeds|
|Amphibious||77||485||Oily vine||Juju woodcutting potion||Fruit tree seeds|
|Carrion||78||505||Pungent vine||Making Supercompost||Vine herb seeds|
|Draconic||80||525||Draconic vine||Juju mining potion||Vine herb seeds|
|Saradomin||81||600||Saradomin vine||Saradomin's blessing||Any type of seed|
|Guthix||81||600||Guthix vine||Guthix's gift||Any type of seed|
|Zamorak||81||600||Zamorak vine||Zamorak's favour||Any type of seed|
The following jadinkos can be caught by tracking, which requires a noose wand.
|Jadinko||Picture||Hunter level||Exp||Primary drop||Vine Usage||Possible 2nd drop|
|Shadow||71||475||Shadow vine||Scentless potion||Any type of seed|
|Diseased||78||580.5||Corrupt vine||Juju hunter potion||Any type of seed|
|Camouflaged||79||600||Striped vine||Payment to Papa Mambo to ward off jadinkos||Any type of seed|
Construction plays a role in Herblore Habitat. The jadinkos have certain preferences that allow them to be caught. One of these preferences is an environmental feature. You do not gain Construction experience for building the habitat, it uses no materials, and you don't need a saw or hammer. It is possible to boost up to 3 Construction levels by making and drinking tea in your player owned house, then quickly teleporting to the Herblore Habitat area (with a Juju teleport spiritbag or the Witchdoctor mask) to build the required feature. Players can request assistance from other players in order to meet the required levels. Neither player will receive experience (because the action doesn't grant experience), but this allows players to build the habitat feature for free.
If you do not have the Construction levels required to build the habitats, talk to Papa Mambo and select the 'Build' option. You will need to do this each time you change the habitat without the required Construction level. It can cost up to 80,000 coins to build a single habitat.
Potions can be made out of the many items collected while hunting and farming. Each has a unique ability.
- All juju potions must be made in special Juju vials obtained from Papa Mambo.
- Of the various juju potions, only 6 types can be stored with the Tool leprechaun at Herblore Habitat—and they must be 3-dose vials. They are: Juju hunter potion, Juju farming potion, Scentless potion, Saradomin’s blessing, Guthix’s gift, and Zamorak’s favour. The others can only be stored in your bank.
- The effects of the scroll of cleansing from dungeoneering work with all of the potions in Herblore Habitat.
- Potions can be decanted at the Grand Exchanges and the Max Guild.
|Potion||Levels needed||Herb needed||Farmer payment||Secondary ingredient||Experience for making||Effect (per dose)|
|Juju hunter potion (guide)||54||58||78||Erzille||3 Green vine blossom||Corrupt vine / Diseased jadinko||123||Necessary to attract certain jadinkos (pour on vine flower patch)|
|Scentless potion (guide)||59||65||71||Argway||4 Red vine blossom||Shadow vine / Shadow jadinko||135||All traps placed are treated as though smoked with a torch|
|Juju farming potion (guide)||64||70||74||Ugune||3 Blue vine blossom||Marble vine / Igneous jadinko||146||Each herb picked from a herb patch has a 1/3 chance of producing an extra herb|
|Juju cooking potion (guide)||67||76||75||Shengo||5 Lergberry||Plant teeth / Cannibal jadinko||152||Used to cook juju gumbo, a high-healing food|
|Juju fishing potion (guide)||70||76||76||Shengo||5 Lergberry||Aquatic vine||158||Each shark caught has a 1/3 chance of being a baron shark|
|Juju woodcutting potion (guide)||71||80||77||Samaden||5 Kalferberry||Oily vine / Amphibious jadinko||160||Each set of logs chopped from a tree has a 1/10 chance of producing a wood spirit for 30 seconds, which automatically banks logs|
|Juju mining potion (guide)||74||80||80||Samaden||5 Kalferberry||Draconic vine||168||Each ore mined from a rock has a 1/10 chance of producing a stone spirit for 30 seconds, which automatically smelts any ore or coal mined. Coal is not needed to complete higher level bars.|
|Saradomin's blessing (guide)||75||80||81||Samaden||5 Kalferberry||Saradomin vine||170||Provides a +10% bonus to Farming XP when farming in the Herblore Habitat|
|Guthix's gift (guide)||75||80||81||Samaden||5 Kalferberry||Guthix vine||170||Provides a +10% bonus to Herblore XP when brewing juju potions|
|Zamorak's favour (guide)||75||80||81||Samaden||5 Kalferberry||Zamorak vine||170||Provides a +10% bonus to Hunter XP when hunting jadinkos in the Herblore Habitat|
Besides receiving experience and Juju potions, players can earn weekly experience rewards and a costume. Strange rocks may also be found whilst training in the area.
If you catch at least one of each jadinko in one week, Papa Mambo will tell you to come to him to receive your reward. The reset time is the same as penguin's and the circus' reset, i.e., Wednesday 00:00 UTC. You may choose to receive experience in farming, hunter, or herblore. The amount of xp earned is equal to twice as much xp you would get for turning in a pair of strange rocks.
If you then catch at least one of each God jadinko in the same week, Papa Mambo will tell you to come to him again to receive another reward - which will be 50% of the regular jadinko reward. If you catch the God jadinkos before catching the regular ones, you will NOT get a message from Papa Mambo about collecting all the Gods, but you can still claim the bonus reward after you catch all 10 regular jadinkos.
If you catch all the jadinkos but do not claim your reward from Papa Mambo, the reward will be lost at the next reset.
The formula is , where x is the skill level.
template = Template:Herblore_Habitat_calc form = shf result = shr param = 1|Skill's Level||int|1-99
|Herblore Habitat calculator|
|Calculator is loading...|
|0 Experience Points|
Extra experience in Herblore HabitatEdit
In addition to the "chunk" experience bonus given by Papa Mambo for catching all three god jadinkos in a given week, there is a thirty minute experience bonus given to all Herblore habitat related Hunting, Farming, and Herblore training. This time begins when you collect your chunk experience bonus, and ends prematurely if you log out, so do not collect your reward unless you are ready to use the thirty minutes or do not care. The bonus experience depends on the witchdoctor clothing you're wearing, with the mask and top giving 2% each and the legs 1%.
Witchdoctor camouflage gearEdit
On any week that you catch all of the normal jadinkos at least once, you will have a random chance to get either the Witchdoctor legs or Witchdoctor robes (regardless of what piece(s) you have already obtained).
You will receive the Witchdoctor mask when you've managed to catch all three god jadinkos at least once in the same week as you caught the ten regular jadinkos.
If you already own one or more Witchdoctor masks you will not receive an additional one after capturing all the normal and god jadinkos. The drop trick can be used to bypass this restriction.
In order to obtain all 3 pieces, you must have 55 Agility, 81 Hunter, 77 Farming, 54 Herblore and optionally 80 Construction (or money to pay for habitats to be built). Boosts and assists can be used for Construction, but Assists cannot be used to bypass the Farming requirement, as the Kalferberry and Lergberry seeds are untradeable. Players can only get one piece of either witchdoctor robes/legs during the same week and it is not uncommon for a player to get the same piece multiple weeks in a row.
This set can be stored in the armour case of a player's costume room. All three items are stored together.
After obtaining one or more pieces of the witchdoctor armour, if a player talks to Pauline Polaris at the Livid Farm on Lunar Isle, they will receive Mambo's potion which, when consumed, will grant the player an extra 3,000 farming experience. You can only receive the potion after having watched the Livid Farm introduction.
- There was a glitch where juju potions gave no Herblore experience when made. This was fixed 15 October 2013.