The examine information references the philosopher's stone, a legendary alchemical tool that has been conjectured for centuries. The chart may even be a reference to Mutus Liber, a 17th century document that purported to demonstrate (via a series of illustrations) a method for manufacturing the stone. However, the formula remains elusive.
The chart appears to depict theorems and formulas about alchemy, or the art of creating gold. Since it is placed in the study, it can be inferred that it is there for studying the aspects of alchemy. When selected, it can be "studied". The player then proceeds to squint at the chart and try to make sense of it.